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Glossary

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CALIPER
A tool for checking casing in a well for deformation before e.g. running drilling tools, which might become stuck, or packers which might leak.

CAP ROCK 
Impermeable rock overlying an oil or gas reservoir that tends to prevent migration of the reservoir fluids from the reservoir.
CAPPED WELL
A well capable of production but lacking wellhead installations and a pipeline connection.

CARRIED INTEREST OR NET EARNED INTEREST
The term "carried interest", as usually used in the oil and gas industry, refers in a broad sense to situations wherein an oil and gas venture must "pay out" (i.e. all drilling, developing and operating costs must be recovered out of production) before the owner of the carried interest receives any proceeds from the venture.  A common type of carried interest is created where the owner of an undivided share in the working interest under a lease agrees to advance all funds for costs of drilling, developing and operating the property to which the lease applies.  In such a situation, the owner or owners of the other undivided shares in the working interest become "carried interests".  The person advancing the funds (operator) is said to be "carrying" the other interests in that their respective pro rata shares of the costs of drilling, developing, and operating the property are paid by him and are recoverable by him solely out of their respective pro rata shares of proceeds from oil and gas production.

CASH CALLS
Money requested in advance by operator from participants in a well for capital costs.

CASING HEAD
Heavy steel fitting that connects the first string of casing and provides a housing for the slips and packing assemblies by which subsequent strings of casing are suspended and the annulus sealed off.

CASING POINT
The depth of the lower end of a string of casing.

CASING SHOE
A short assembly, typically manufactured from a heavy steel collar and profiled cement interior, that is screwed to the bottom of a casing string. The rounded profile helps guide the casing string past any ledges or obstructions that would prevent the string from being correctly located in the wellbore.

CASING STRING
Total feet of casing run in a well.

CEMENT ETC.
Cement is used to "set" casing in the well bore and seal off unproductive formations and apertures.

CHOKE
An aperture restricting flow in a well or flowline.

CHRISTMAS TREE
The manifold, or arrangement of pipework connections and valves which is installed on the wellhead prior to production. As well as outlets for production, the tree will provide for the injection of mud to "kill" the well, and for the insertion of downhole maintenance tools and wirelines.

CIRCULATE
Cycling of the drilling fluid through the drill string and wellbore while drilling is temporarily suspended. This is done to condition the drilling fluid and wellbore before drilling proceeds.

CLOSE IN
To shut in (temporarily) a well that is capable of production.

CLOSURE
Four-way (all round) closure or seal is necessary, over the top and down the gradients on the sides of a potential reservoir, before it can trap or retain hydrocarbons. Closure may be structural as in an anticline, or may be partly due to an impermeable fault, or stratigraphic trapping.

COILED TUBING 
A long, small diameter pipe flexible enough to be stored on and deployed from a large, truck-mounted roll. Used to replace jointed pipe in certain types of drilling, completion, and workover operations.

COMMERCIAL WELL
A well capable of producing profitably.

COMPLETION
Installation in a well of production tubing and equipment, wellhead and Christmas Tree.

CONDENSATE 
Hydrocarbons which are in the gaseous state under reservoir conditions and which become liquid when temperature or pressure is reduced. A mixture of pentanes and higher hydrocarbons.
 
CONING
If an oil well is produced at excessive rates the reduction in reservoir pressure may tend to draw up underlying water towards the well in a cone like shape, like-wise gas can be drawn downwards from an overlying gas cap.

CORE/CORE BARREL
A vertical section of reservoir or other rock taken in drilling a well, for detailed study and analysis. In order to retrieve the core as intact as possible, it is cut from the rock by an annular core bit. The central column of rock passes through the centre of the bit and, as the bit cuts deeper, is received by a hollow cylindrical Core Barrel above the bit, where it is retained and protected by a series of rubber baffles. When the bit has cut deep enough to fill the core barrel, it is withdrawn from the hole and the core extracted. In this way the actual sequence of rock strata is preserved.

CUTTINGS
Rock chips cut from the formation by the drill bit, and brought to the surface with the mud. Used by geologists to obtain formation data.


DARCY
The unit of measurement of rock permeability, i.e. the extent to which it will allow a fluid to flow through it.
The permeability of most oil and gas reservoir rocks is measured in millidarcies, (thousandths of a Darcy).

DECLINE RATE
The rate at which a well's production declines due to natural and sometimes man-introduced forces.  Expressed in percent per year.

DELINEATION WELL
A name for an appraisal well, usually one drilled specifically to determine the boundary of a discovered reservoir.

DEPLETION
Refers to consumption of natural resources which are part of a company's assets.  Producing oil, mining, gas and timber companies deal in products that cannot be replenished and, as such, are known as "wasting assets". 

DEPTH MAP
A relief map of a sub-surface geological structure where the contours relate to depths from the surface datum level. This is a further interpretation of a seismic time map.

DERRICK
The tower-like structure that houses most of the hoisting and lowering equipment & drilling controls.

DEVELOPMENT PHASE 
The phase in which a proven oil or gas field is brought into production by drilling production (development) wells.
 
DEVELOPMENT WELL
Any well drilled in the course of extraction of reservoir hydrocarbons.

DEVIATED WELL/HOLE
A well whose path has been deliberately diverted from the vertical. Although relatively costly to drill, they are used particularly offshore to reach distant parts of a reservoir from a single platform. Deviated, or directional drilling up to 60 to 70 from the vertical is now fairly common. Greater deviation is possible with special equipment.
 
DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
The technique of drilling at an angle from the vertical by deflecting the drill bit. Directional wells are drilled to develop an offshore lease from one drilling platform; to reach a pay zone where drilling cannot be done, such as beneath a shipping lane.

DISCOVERY WELL
Exploratory well which discovers a new oil/gas field (see WILDCAT).
 
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE
The difference between the pressure in a well due to the mud column and the pressure in the surrounding rock at any point. See also Sticking.

DIP (DIPMETER)
The inclination from the horizontal of to the surface of a geological structure. A Dip Meter indicates dip relative to a well bore.

DIRECTIONAL DRILLING
Controlled drilling at a specified angle from the vertical.

DOWN DIP
An area of a structure where the top of the formation is lower than the point under consideration.

DOWN HOLE
Down a well. The expression covers any equipment, measurement, etc., in a well or designed for use in one.

DOWNTIME
A period when any equipment is unserviceable or out of operation for maintenance etc.

DRAWWORKS
Hoisting mechanism on a drilling rig which spools off or takes in the drilling line and thus raises or lowers the drill string and bit.

DRILL BIT
The component at the end of the drill string that cuts the rock and makes a hole.

DRILL COLLAR
Heavy-walled sections of pipe included at the bottom of the drill string to apply weight to the drill bit during drilling.

DRILL CUTTINGS
Chips and small fragments of drilled rock that are brought to the surface by the flow of the drilling mud as it is circulated.

DRILL PIPE
Steel pipe, in approximately 30-foot (9-meter) lengths, screwed together to form a continuous pipe extending from the drilling rig to the drilling bit at the bottom of the hole. Rotation of the drill pipe and bit causes the bit to bore through the rock.

DRILL STEM TESTS (DST)
Conventional method of testing a formation to determine its potential productivity before installing production casing in a well. A testing tool is attached to the bottom of the drill pipe and placed opposite the formation to be tested which has been isolated by placing packers above and below the formation. Fluids in the formation are allowed to flow up through the drill pipe by establishing an open connection between the formation and the surface.

DRILL STRING 
String of individual joints of pipe that extends from the bit to the kelly and carries the mud down to, and rotates, the bit.

DRILLING FLUIDS
While a mixture of clay and water is the most common drilling fluid, wells can also be drilled with air, nitrogen, natural gas, oil, or plain water as the drilling fluid.

DRY HOLE
Generally refers to any well that does not produce oil or gas in commercial quantities.

DUAL COMPLETION
Completion of a well in which two separate formations may be produced at the same time. Production from each zone is segregated by running two tubing strings with packers, or running one tubing string with a packer and producing the other zone through the annulus.

DRY GAS
Natural gas composed mainly of methane with only minor amounts of ethane, propane and butane and little or no heavier hydrocarbons in the gasoline range.


E&P 
Abbreviation for exploration and production.

ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR)
A process whereby oil is recovered other than by the natural pressure in a reservoir.
 
EXPLORATION/EXPLORATION WELL
Exploration is the process of identifying a prospective hydrocarbon region and structure, mainly by reference to regional, and specific, geochemical, geological and geophysical (seismic) surveys. An Exploration Well is a well drilled to test a potential but unproven hydrocarbon trap or structure where good reservoir rock and a seal or closure combine with a potential source of hydrocarbons.


FACIES
In geology, the composition and characteristics of a rock formation.

FARM IN  
When a company acquires an interest in a block by taking over all or part of the financial commitment for drilling an exploration well.

FARMOUT
An arrangement under which a portion of an interest in petroleum and natural gas rights is assigned in consideration for the assignee agreeing to explore or drill (and perhaps equip) one well or several wells at his sole expense; subsequent development and equipment cost, if any, and income and operating expenses are shaped by participants on an agreed basis.

FAULT/FAULT BLOCK
A discontinuity in a rock formation caused by fracturing of the earth's crust. In oilfield terms a Fault Block is a compartment of a rock formation surrounded or partly surrounded by faults, which may have sealed in hydrocarbons separately from the rest of the formation.

FEED
Front end engineering design. Conceptual design prior to detailed design.

FIELD 
An area consisting of a single reservoir or multiple reservoirs all grouped on, or related to, the same individual geological structural feature or stratigraphic condition. The field name refers to the surface area, although it may refer to both the surface and the underground productive formations.

FILTER CAKE/FILTRATE
Build up of mud solids or filtrate on the wall of a well. This helps seal and stabilize the rock face, but too much can cause sticking of the drill string. See also Differential Pressure.

FISH/FISHING
Any unwanted object down a well, commonly the lower end of a drill string which has broken off. "Fishing" is trying to recover the Fish, using various attachments to the drill stem or wireline, known as fishing tools.

FLOWING PRESSURE
Pressure registered at the wellhead of a flowing well.

FLOWING BOTTOM HOLE PRESSURE
Bottom hole pressure measured at a given flow rate.

FOOTAGE/FOOTAGE RATE
Penetration rate in drilling. Footage Rate may also be a form of remuneration under a drilling contract. Often referred to as ROP (Rate of Penetration).

FORMATION
A rock deposit or structure of homogeneous origin and appearance.

FORMATION DAMAGE
Damage to the reservoir rock around a well due to e.g. plugging with mud, or infiltration by water from the well.

FRACTURING
The process of cracking open the rock formation around a well bore to increase productivity. This is normally done by applying hydraulic pressure down the well bore.

FREEHOLD LEASE
An agreement with an individual which provides for the petroleum and natural gas rights underlying a given area.
 
FREEHOLD ROYALTY
A royalty based on production paid to the owner (anyone other than the crown) of the producing lease.

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